Simulation model and the theory behind

What is inside a simulation software and how do you know if the results are reliable? Here is an overview.

Simulation model

Theory and experiment

Patterns of movement behavior are identified through observations, experiments, etc. (e.g. Institute for Advanced Simulation Jülich).

Validation and verification

The computer models are validated on the basis of tests and comparison with real data. The ISO-Norm standardizes model test internationally.

Translation of behaviour

These patterns are evaluated and translated into models that describe different levels of movement.

Computational modeling

The characteristics of the different levels of behavior are translated into algorithms and the computer models are calibrated.

Further information

Simulation model

Here you will find a detailed explanation of how the simulation model in crowd:it works.
Model description


Find out more about which key figures and tests are used for validation.


Find out about the evaluation options and diagram types.
Evaluation options

Congestion assessment and fundamental diagram

Congestion evaluation according to DIN 18009-2

If many people have to leave a building quickly, congestion can occur. This increases the time it takes for people to get to safety. People flow simulations are a useful tool for simulating such situations in the planning phase. But what actually is a traffic jam? What criteria determine it? And how should the results be evaluated?

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The basis: the fundamental diagram

The basis of the congestion evaluation is the fundamental diagram. This describes the formation of congestion. In microscopic analyses, the fundamental diagram is used to calibrate the programs.

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